Tourism for all
The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism was released by UNWTO in 1999 and consists of a set of principles addressed to tourism stakeholders, operators and workers at various levels for the improvement and development of the sector in the context of a limitation of its negative impacts on environments and people.
It can be consulted at http://dtxtq4w60xqpw.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/docpdf/gcetbrochureglobalcodeen.pdf
In 2013 UNWTO produced the Recommendations on Accessible Tourism, in order to guarantee people with disabilities right to access also in the tourism sector.
It provides a comprehensive framework dealing with all the aspects of tourism experience (travel, accommodation, information, and so on) integrating the most important concepts from the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities and Universal Design.
It is available at http://www.accessibletourism.org/resources/accesibilityen_2013_unwto.pdf
Following on from the previous document, in 2014, during the World Summit on the Destinations for all, held in Montreal, participants proclaimed “A world for Everyone: Declaration from the Word Summit on Destinations for All”, which provides a set of actions for decision-makers and stakeholders in tourism to make environments, transport and services suitable for all visitors and residents.
It can be consulted at http://www.destinationsforall2014.com/en/declaration
Studies, Market analysis and good practices in Tourism for All
Accessibility Market and Stakeholders Analysis, One-Stop-Shop for Accessible Tourism in Europe (OSSATE – 2005)
Accessible Tourism: Concepts and Issues by Buhalis D. and Darcy, S., 2010.
Accessible Tourism – The Ignored Opportunity by Souca Maria Luiza, 2010.
Best Practice in Accessible Tourism. Inclusion, Disability, Ageing Population and Tourism by Buhalis, D., Darcy s. and Ambrose, I., 2012.
Economic Impact and Travel Patterns of Accessible Tourism in Europe – Final Report Summary
EU Study: Mapping the Skills and Training Needs to Improve Accessible Tourism Services in Europe, European Commission, 2014
EU Study: Mapping and Performance Check of the Supply of Accessible Tourism Services in Europe, European Commission, 2015
New Opportunities for the Tourism Market: Senior Tourism and Accessible Tourism by Elisa Alén, Trinidad Domínguez and Nieves Losada, 2012.
Universal Design for Customer Engagement Toolkit
Page of the World Health Organization website introducing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, a worldwide recognized classification, but also a language, for the measurement of health and disability.
Rights of People with Disabilities
United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (1993) is one of the most important international documents on the rights of people with disabilities. Its adoption by the UN General Assembly was one of the most important goals of the Decade of Disabled Persons. It is available at http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/enable/dissre00.htm or, in PDF format, at http://www.independentliving.org/standardrules/StandardRules.pdf
The Declaration of Barcelona was made in March 1995 during the European Congress “The City and the Disabled”. This document strongly stressed that the interaction between persons and environment creates disability and advocated for focusing on this in order to ensure equal opportunities to people with disabilities. Cities adhering to the Declaration commit themselves to undertake a series of actions to promote the respect of people with disabilities rights. The Declaration can be retrieved at http://www.bcn.cat/ciutat-disminucio/en/index.html
Madrid Declaration about Discrimination (2003) was released during the European Congress on Disability in concomitance with the proclamation of 2003 as the European Year of People with Disabilities. The document provided an international framework for actions to be undertaken at every level (European, national, regional) to contrast the discrimination against people with disabilities. It is available at http://ifglobal.sitehosting.be/uploads/documents/Madrid%20Declaration%202002.pdf
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol was adopted in 2006 and came into effect in 2008. It is the result of decades of work and experience by UN in the field of disabilities, rights and social inclusion. It can be retrieved at http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/convention/convoptprot-e.pdf
European Disability Strategy 2010-2020: A Renewed Commitment to a Barrier-Free Europe is the result of previous documents and experiences and provides a framework to act at European level for the improvement of people with disabilities lives. It can be consulted at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:0636:FIN:en:PDF
Most of the documents previously cited here are not legally binding. National legislations enforced should have received their indications but it is important for you to check your national laws.
National accessibility standards vary from place to place but, beyond legal requirements there are accessibility standards that are good for all persons, whether disabled or not.
Design for All and Tourism for All are two concepts that aim to apply these standards beyond national legislated requirements also remembering that accessibility relates not only to measurements but to every aspect of life.
Here is an overview of references about accessibility issues.
http://www.eca.lu/ and http://www.ub.edu/escult/Water/N05/eca_full.pdf
Accessibility of Tourism Destinations
Accessibility in tourism is related to the all chain and in the last year many tourism destinations have started promoting access policies. The importance of the role of institution in the development and the promotion of an accessible destinations has led to the release of guides and publications on accessible tourism destinations management.
Other Recommended documents
Tourism for All – promoting universal accessibility (2016)
To mark the celebration of the World Tourism Day 2016 under the theme "Tourism for All – promoting universal accessibility" UNWTO, the European Network for Accessible Tourism (ENAT) and the Spanish ONCE Foundation for the Social Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities have produced a compilation of Good Practices in the Accessible Tourism Supply Chain.
While these examples provide a small sample of possible solutions regarding accessibility, they will hopefully inspire others to take steps towards broadening the availability of accessible offers in tourism destinations around the world.
UN Sustainable development goals (2015)
In the recent “2030 Agenda for Global Action” containing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 2015), Goal 11 focuses on principles to “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”. This goal captures tourism and recreation through its call for the provisions of universal design for accessible and sustainable transport systems, inclusive urbanization, and access to green and public spaces. Also Goals 8 12 and 14 tackles tourism related issues.
Manual on Accessible Tourism for ALL – ACS foundation (2015)
This report, by ACS Foundation, focuses on the supply-side perspective. It takes into account the market needs generated by the demand for tourism for all and the sustainability of the production of goods and services created to provide accessibility. The document gives an overview of tourism for all, and examines the Spanish and international regulatory framework (guidelines and recommendations of the World Tourism Organization, the United Nations and European institutions). The report then explains the concept of public-private partnership and summarizes the main activities of the ACS Foundation and of the Real Patronato sobre Discapacidad (Spanish Royal Board on Disability).
Mapping and Performance Check of the Supply of Accessible Tourism Services – Final report (2015)
This is the Final Report of a wide-ranging study of accessible tourism supply, commissioned by the EC Tourism Unit and conducted in 2013-2014. Data was collected by means of visitor and supplier surveys, national legislation and expert reviews in the 28 EU Member States, Web-based research and analysis of accessibility information, transport, infrastructure/facilities and tourism services.
People with disabilities (PwD) in the tourism industry (Kim Ieng Loi, Weng Hang Kong, 2015)
Through an extensive literature review, this paper represents an initial attempt to widen the research agenda on disabled people and holiday taking and to suggest important links among disability, charity and accessible tourism that could be made with broader studies of disability. Based on these findings research attention can be directed to fill potential void.
Economic impact and travel patterns of accessible tourism in Europe – FINAL REPORT (2014)
This is one of three studies commissioned by the European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry (DG ENTR) in 2012-2013 in order to build a comprehensive picture of Accessible Tourism in the European Union (EU). The main aim of the study was to better understand demand for Accessible Tourism in order to guide policy-making in this field.
Economic Impact and Travel Patterns of Accessible Tourism in Europe – CASE STUDIES (2014)
Good practice/success stories in the supply of accessible offerings which act as enabling factors affecting the quality of the tourist experience of people with access needs.
A World for Everyone: Declaration from the World Summit on Destinations for All, Montreal 2014.
The Declaration, signed by the delegates of the World Summit and subsequent signatories at the online registration page, below, affirms the commitment of stakeholders to develop tourism destinations for all visitors, in conformance with the UNWTO Recommendations on Accessible Tourism (2013).
New Opportunities for the Tourism Market: Senior Tourism and Accessible Tourism (Elisa Alén, 2012)
The aim of this study was to determine the profile and behaviour of the elderly traveler and that of those seeking accessible tourism, as well as the market opportunities and profitability that can be generated nationally and at the European level, as it was assumed that these two types of tourists require similar amenities.
Strategy provides a framework for action at European level, as well as with national action to address the diverse situation of men, women and children with disabilities.
Accessible Tourism – The Ignored Opportunity (Souca Maria Luiza, 2010)
This article offers a short presentation of the term accessible tourism, the existing research in the field and the main reasons why the worldwide tourism industry is seemly unaware of this particular market.
UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol (2008)
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol (A/RES/61/106) was adopted on 13 December 2006 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, and was opened for signature on 30 March 2007. There were 82 signatories to the Convention, 44 signatories to the Optional Protocol, and 1st ratification of the Convention. The Convention entered into force on 3 May 2008. The Convention follows decades of work by the United Nations to change attitudes and approaches to persons with disabilities. It takes to a new height the movement from viewing persons with disabilities as “objects” of charity, medical treatment and social protection towards viewing persons with disabilities as “subjects” with rights, who are capable of claiming those rights and making decisions for their lives based on their free and informed consent as well as being active members of society.
OSSATE – Accessibility Market and Stakeholde Analysis (2005)
This report presents an analysis of the terminology related to disability, accessibility and tourism. The demand and supply analysis covers an estimation of the market size for accessibility in Europe and worldwide, the identification of key stakeholders and the current supply of accessible products and services.
The Madrid declaration “Non discrimination plus positive action results in social inclusion” (2003)
Over 600 participants in the European Congress on Disability warmly welcomed the proclamation of 2003 as the European Year of People with Disabilities and set down in this Declaration the vision, which should provide a conceptual framework for action at European community level, national, regional and local level.
Towards a barrier free Europe for people with disabilities (2002)
Speech of Anna Diamantopoulou, European Commissioner responsible for Employment and Social Affairs Address to EU Presidency Conference Non Discrimination + Positive Action = Equality in Madrid
Global code of ethics for tourism (1999)
A fundamental frame of reference for responsible and sustainable tourism, the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET) is a comprehensive set of principles designed to guide key-players in tourism development. Addressed to governments, the travel industry, communities and tourists alike, it aims to help maximise the sector’s benefits while minimising its potentially negative impact on the environment, cultural heritage and societies across the globe.
Barcelona Declaration 1995
This declaration has been made on the occasion of the European Congress “The City and the Disabled”, held in Barcelona, Spain, on the 23rd and 24th March 1995. As of July 2004, 436 Municipal Authorities have adhered to what is the most important European convention on accessibility. The Declaration is a simple but powerful document. It has no legal force but, by committing municipal authorities to a wide range of actions, it is a major instrument of change. It is also subtle, in that while entirely non-threatening, the measures, which follow on its adoption, are wide-ranging. For example, an adhering city or town undertakes to produce a plan for the implementation of the Declaration and to establish structures for ongoing consultation with people with disabilities and their representatives.
UN Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (1993)
Among the major outcomes of the Decade of Disabled Persons was the adoption, by the General Assembly, of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, in 1993. Although not a legally binding instrument, the Standard Rules represent a strong moral and political commitment of Governments to take action to attain equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities.
The rules serve as an instrument for policy-making and as a basis for technical and economic cooperation. The Standard Rules consists of 22 rules summarizing the message of the World Programme of Action. The Rules incorporate the human rights perspective which had developed during the Decade. The 22 rules concerning disabled persons consist of four chapters – preconditions for equal participation, target areas for equal participation, implementation measures, and the monitoring mechanism – and cover all aspects of life of disabled persons.